Comparison on the Perfomance Behaviours of Vertically Irregular High Rise RC Building Under Different Seismic Zones
Structural Behaviours of the Precast Frame System in Lateral Load Resistance Building
Study on Influence of Shear Wall Location in Irregular High-Rise R.C Building
Comparative Study on High-Rise RC Building with Flat Plate and Framed Systems
Earthquake Induced Forces in Piles Embedded in Layered Soil
Globally, earthquakes are major problems for mankind and have caused massive destruction up to the present day. Designing for pile ductility in high risk seismic regions is very important because it is very difficult to assess pile damage after earthquakes and the potential repair costs are very large. The behaviour and designing of piles to withstand lateral loads is a concern for civil engineers where piles are subjected to seismic loads. The problem of interest here is to investigate the nonlinear dynamic behavior of bored pile foundations and, studied based on the Beam on Nonlinear Winkler Foundation approach. In modeling the BNWF, the simplified dynamic p-y curves are developed with the spring constant characterized by the so-called nonlinear p-y springs with viscous dashpots in parallel for a frequency range from 0-10 Hz (2 Hz intervals) for the pile groups. Shadowing or group reduction effects to reduce the soil resistance from a single pile are used with a simple reduction factor (p-multiplier) concept in this approach. Earthquak induced forces in piles in layered soil media, the YATHA soil profile, are investigated. In investigation the dynamic soil response under earthquake motion, a parallel spring-dashpot elements are attached to the piles in the middle of each of these layers. Three types of pile group are designed to resist the imposed load from 12-storeyed building. Of several existing computer programs, the dynamic model is implemented into ETABS software for analyzing the lateral response of these pile groups over different group configurations and frequencies for center-to-center pile spacing of 3.0 D. The results from research on BNWF method: peak lateral displacements, shear forces and bending moments are compared. It is hoped that the consistent results of the analyses presented herein will point out and benefit other projects of pile supported structures.
Planning and Design of Sea Port
Construction of inland as well as deep ports along ocean liners are necessary in Myanmar. In ancient days, there was only one port in Yangon, but, nowadays, there evolve large ports of Thilawa (Myanmar International Terminal Thilawa (MITT) and at Ahlone (ASIA WORLD) port Terminal and Myamar Industrial port (MIP). In this paper, planning of container port and design of container wharf are studied. First of all, the location of Thilawa is studied and the requirement data for a study port and traffic statistics are collected. Then, berth and land area requirements are described in this paper. For the selected site, layout of container port plan, storage area and container handling capacity are calculated. And development plan of equipments and land area are discussed. In this study, the container wharf with the vertical piles are designed for the allowable dead weight tonnage of 15,000 DWT and length of wharf is 200 m and this wharf can berth one marine vessel. Sizes of slab, beam, column, wail and pile of wharf are calculated based on the data of the liners. Sap 2000 software is used to analyse the beams, columns and wail. The study wharf is constructed by using bove design can provided safe berthing of ocean liners, easy and fast loading and unloading and a chance to leave the port in very short time.
Analysis and Design of Transmission Tower
This paper presents the analysis and design of transmission tower. In present study, a typical 230 KV self-supporting, double circuit, suspension and lattice type transmission tower is considered. The effects of temperature changes in wires are evaluated. Transmission tower members (bracing system) are designed by AISC-LRFD specification. Wire conditions are normally considered as two types (normal condition and broken wire condition). Proposed transmission tower wind loadings are considered based on ASCE Manuals and Reports on Engineering Practice No.74 and considered as seismic zone 4. The tower is modelled and analysed by using STAAD Pro software. In analysing the tower, angle sections are designed for all steel members. The maximum axial force occurs 75.0 kip at L40407 member. Connection designs are used 3/4" diameter, A394 Type 0 bolts, A 36 steel and bearing type bolted connection. Keywords- Transmission tower, self supporting, suspension and lattice type, bearing type bolted connection
Rehabilitation and Analysis of Irrigation System for Natmauk Irrigable Area
Study on Flood Frequency Analysis for Sittaung River
Evaluation of Groundwater Quality and Analysis of Survey Questionnaires in Technological University (Hmawbi)
Water is vital for the health of the population all over the world. Groundwater is stored in the soil and rock formations below the earth’s surface. More than 2.5 billion people rely on groundwater for their basic drinking water. Physical and chemical characteristics of groundwater contamination can affect the groundwater quality. Not everyone knows that ground water contains heavy metal concentrations. This study aims to access the water quality results for groundwater samples collected from the study area, to get information about whether the study area is contaminated or not based upon validated ground water from preliminary test data, and to collect the survey data and analyze the results by using Statical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) software. The study area is Technological University (Hmawbi). The sets of questionnaires are distributed to one hundred people to collect survey data by analyzing Statical Package Social Software (SPSS). The characteristics of water quality from tube well at TU (Hmawbi) has a yellow color, a metallic taste, an offensive odor, and heavy metal concentrations of iron and manganese. So, water samples from tube wells near Kant Gaw Teachers' hostel and Kumudra Students' hostel were tested in the ISO Tech laboratory to know about heavy metal concentrations. In this test, pH, colour, turbidity, total hardness, total alkalinity, iron, chloride, sulphate, total solids, total dissolved solids and manganese of groundwater in winter and summer seasons were tested as preliminary water quality results. The level of iron, manganese, colour, pH and turbidity in groundwater are higher than the limitations level of WHO standards and Myanmar National Drinking Water Quality Standard (MNDWQS). So, survey questionnaires were prepared and analyzed by using (SPSS) software.
Experimenatal Research on Consolidation Behaviors of Expansive Soil
Probabilistic Slope Stability Analysis of Ma Hlwe Taung under Different Tension Crack Effects
In recent years, geotechnical engineers are shifting increasingly toward reliability assessment-based decision-making processes due to the large design savings and possibilities for failure event prediction that emerge from accounting for soil variability and undertaking probabilistic analysis. The proposed area is located in Ma Hlwe Taung between the latitude of 15° 02' 34.4" N and the longitude of 97° 58' 25.1" E. The objective of this study is to investigate the stability of the slope using probabilistic analysis under different tension crack conditions, which were previously explored using a deterministic approach. The analysis is expressed in terms of the factor of safety, the probability of failure, and the reliability index. For this purpose, limit equilibrium tool of Seep/W and Slope/W are utilized with the limit equilibrium method of Morgenstern and Price method, and ten thousand Monte Carlo simulations. This study shows that the factor of safety value obtained from a deterministic analysis only is inadequate to predict the stability of the slope. In the actual case, the slope remained stable, with the FS value being nearly one at the end of the 72-hour simulation. After that, the slope failure occurred immediately on the fourth day of the rainfall period. Therefore, a value of FS greater than 1.00 does not always mean that the slope is safe in the traditional sense and has a probability of failure in percent. Moreover, the higher the probability of failure (PF), the lower the reliability index (RI). This PF and RI value depend on the coefficient of variation (COV) of the input soil parameters and the simulation time.
Comparative Study on Concrete Pile Foundation
The purposed study is to determine the required number of pile for different pile design depending on the pile capacity. Pile capacity is considered by two methods, Skemptom's method and Main Test method. As a result, Skemptom's method gives the lower pile capacity of 826.25 KN while the Main Test Method gives the higher pile capacity of 927.89 KN. As a case study, a fourteen- storeyed super structure load is considered for pile foundation design. The analysis and results of the structure are done by using ETABS software. Depending on the resultant maximum load capacity, the piles of different diameter are carried out. And then, pile design is conducted to resist vertical load, lateral load, allowable settlement of pile and deflection. This study is to determine the required number of piles for the concrete pile foundations. Piles, structural members are used to build pile foundations, which are deep and which cost more than shallow foundations. Despite the cost, the use of piles often is necessary to ensure safety. Methods of calculating lateral resistance of vertical piles are Brinch Hansen's Method (1961) and Brom's Method (1946 a,b). In this two methods, Brinch Hansen's Method is applicable for C-∅ soils and for short pile only. Brom's Method is applicable for short and long piles, both free head and fixed (restrained) head.
Rainfall Induced Slope Stability Analysis At MA HLWE TAUNG Section Under Short Duration And Antencedent Rainfall Effect
The heavy rainfall in August 2019 indicated one of the most hazardous natural disasters in Mon State and the Tanintharyi region, Myanmar. Continuous monsoon rainfall caused a series of slope failures and road damage along the Ma Hlwe Taung section of the Ye-Dawei road on 9 August 2019. This paper aims to analyze the stability of the slope for a selected area under different rainfall intensities and durations. Numerical modelling of the stability of the slope under a short duration of high intensity rainfall effect was first analyzed by a deterministic approach with Geo-studio (2018-R) according to the Morgenstern and Price limit equilibrium method. The results showed that this short and intense tropical rainfall was insufﬁcient to find the cause of landslides in the area. Therefore, the combination of three days of antecedent precipitation rainfall prior to the landslide event and the actual rainfall event were taken into account and analyzed again to find the factor of safety for the slope. It was found that four days of accumulative rainfall to that of the landslide from 6 to 9 August was 406 mm and it was the main reason for the slope failure case of Ma Hlwe Taung on 9th August, 2019.
People use public bus transportation system to reach their destination; however, some people come to bus station using private transport such as motorcycle, bicycle, trishaw, pedestrian and so on. Especially, motorcycle is mostly used to reach their destination. Traffic congestion has been increasing in developing countries, and everything indicates that it will continue to get worse, representing an undoubted menace to the quality of urban life. Its main expression is a progressive reduction in traffic speeds, resulting in increases in journey times, delay times, progression queue length, fuel consumption, other operating costs and environmental pollution. Congestion is mainly due to the intensive use of motorcycles, bicycles, trishaws, pedestrian and so on. The objective of this result is to specify Feeder Service Route, to identify travel behavior of the people in study area, and then to minimize the overall route length and to reduce use of modal split. In this study, modal split data collection is done by manual count in U Pon Nya Street, Ohn Taww Street, Kyan Sittar Road, Bo Aung Kyaw Road, Sin Phyu Shin Road, P Moe Nin Road, Tabinshwehti Road, Yangon Pathein Road and Insein Nyaungdon Highway. The maximum number of passengers is considered from these data for calculating headway and required maximum number of vehicles. Accordingly, the result showed that the headway of route 1 is 5.4 min, the required number of vehicles is 13 buses and 1 reserve bus. The initial investment project of Daihatsu Hijet 2013 is over 203 million kyats. If the net profit of this project will be over 2.5 million per month, the return of investment will be got after 6 years. Keywords- Feeder Services Route, Head Way, Number of Vehicles, Return of Investment
Four-Step Model Analysis of Urban Transportation Network in Mingaladon Township
Demand for transportation in urban area is an increasing phenomenon for the continuous increase in urban population and economic activities lagging behind the transportation supply. Since, Mingaladon Township is a mixed land use area in Yangon and it is also a crowded township in northern area. The weak planning for increasing vehicles and urban planning are the causes of this problem. In the network of the study area, the traffic flows on each link is carried out to analyze travel time during peak hours and to find the shortest route to avoid congestion conditions in study area. This study presents four step model analysis of urban transportation network in Mingaladon Township. It is divided by five zones. Firstly, trip generation is estimated for predicting the number of trips made by using the regression model within the study area. The second step is trip distribution which is used to estimate ‘zone to zone’ movement by using the gravity model. In third, the model split to predict the percentage of trips using each of modes. The method used in this stage is regression analysis to find origin and destination matrix of person trips only and using multinomial logit model. Trip assignment model is the final stage of four-step model and the model are predicted traffic flow on each links in a network. From trip production analysis, it is observed that Zone -4 has the maximum trip production rate and Zone-1 has the minimum trip production rate. From the trip attraction analysis, it is observed that Zone -4 has the maximum trip attraction rate and Zone-5 has the minimum trip attraction rate. According to the results of trip distribution model, the most trip distribution zone is zone-4. In modal split model, the four modes of car, motorbike bicycle, and bus are considered as mode choice and regression analysis can be used to calculate the utility function model parameters. The results of this model for five zones indicate that the car is the most popular option. In assignment model, there are 34 links, 20 nodes and 5 centroids in the network of study area. Car, motorbike and bicycle are considered in calculation of assignment model. Four-step travel demand model was used to investigate the travel time, mode choice of trip maker and their trip characteristics.
Ssessment of the removal of Iron and Lead from Industrial Wastewater by Using Actvated Carbon
Study on Solid Waste Management System for Pauktaw Township in Rakhine State
Solid waste also called as refuse includes all kinds of wastes in solid state coming from residential, commercial, institutional and industrial areas. The purpose of this paper is to study on solid waste management system for Pauktaw Township in Rakhine State. This study includes generation rates, storage, collection and disposal of solid wastes for five quarters. In this study, layout plan of collection routes for solid wastes are determined for five quarters of Pauktaw Township and disposal of solid wastes are municipal solid wastes.. The design period in this study is considered as 10 years (from 2011 to 2020). But, necessary data for current year (2010) are also considered. The population projections of Pauktaw Township for design period are calculated by using Geometrical Progression Method. Sanitary Landfill System is designed for solid waste disposal system of the selected Township. Moreover, a new disposal site which is located behind the cemetery in Pauktaw Township has been selected. According to topography condition, the area method is used for landfilling. The design waste volume is calculated based on collected wastes by using volume of landfill formula. The flow of leachate is calculated by using Swiss Method and management system for leachate control is also discussed. Keywords-Solid waste generation, collection system, Sanitary landfill design