Department of electrical power engineering is one of the main engineering departments of Technological University (Hmawbi). Department of Electrical power engineering provides an Electrical engineering education to under graduates (Bachelor of Engineering )and post graduate students (Master of Engineering) . This Department has been established since thirty years ago.
There are five main engineering fields in this department.
Low Voltage , installation and Safety
Electrical Machinery
Power Systems
Renewable Energy and
Electrical control.
In this Electrical Power Engineering Department , about eight hundred students who are learning in undergraduate and twenty postgraduate programme receptively.
Now, Electrical power department is trying the Graduates will contribute the advancement of electrical power engineering knowledge and practice of graduates who will apply fundamental scientific and engineering principles to solve complex engineering problems systematically, creatively and innovatively, with the aids of modern analytical and design tools including research methodology. And nurturing the Graduates of the programme will communicate and manage effectively as a leader and/or team player in diverse destinations of electrical power engineering and in multi-disciplinary environment, striving for responsible leadership and engineering innovations.
No | Code | Course Title | Period Per Week | Credit Point | |||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|
Lect. | Tut. | Pract. | Total | ||||
1 | M 11001 | Myanmar | 2 | 0 | 0 | 2 | 1.5 |
2 | E 11011 | English | 2 | 1 | 0 | 3 | 2.3 |
3 | EM 11001 | Engineering Mathematics I | 4 | 1 | 0 | 5 | 3.8 |
4 | E.Ch 11011 | Engineering Chemistry I | 3 | 1 | 2 | 6 | 4.5 |
5 | E.Ph 11011 | Engineering Physics I | 2 | 1 | 2 | 5 | 3.5 |
6 | ME 11011 | Basic Engineering Drawing I | 1 | 0 | 2 | 3 | 2 |
7 | EP 11011 | Principle of Electrical Engineering I | 2 | 0 | 1 | 3 | 2.5 |
8 | M 12011 | Myanmar II | 2 | 0 | 2 | 4 | 1 |
9 | E 12011 | English | 2 | 1 | 0 | 3 | 2.5 |
10 | EM 12002 | Engineering Mathematics II | 4 | 1 | 0 | 5 | 3.8 |
11 | E.Ch 12011 | Engineering Chemistry II | 3 | 1 | 2 | 6 | 4.5 |
12 | E.Ph 12011 | Engineering Physics II | 2 | 1 | 2 | 5 | 3.5 |
13 | ME 12011 | Basic Engineering Drawing II | 1 | 0 | 2 | 3 | 2 |
14 | EP 12011 | Principle of Electrical Engineering II | 2 | 0 | 1 | 3 | 2.5 |
Chapter 1
Functions: Even Functions, Odd Functions, Trigonometric Functions, Exponential Functions, Inverse Functions, and Logarithms.
Chapter 2
Limits and Continuity: Rates of Change, Limit Laws, Definitions of a limit, One-Sided Limits, Continuity Functions, Limit involving infinity.
Chapter 3
Differentiation: Derivatives, Differentiation Rules, Derivatives of Trigonometric Functions, Change Rule, Implicit Differentiation.
Chapter 4
Application of Derivatives: Extreme Values, Mean Value Theorem, Monotonic Functions, Concavity and Curve Sketching, Indeterminate Forms, L’Hopital’s Rule, Applied Optimization.
Chapter 5
Integration: Definite Integral, The Fundamental Theorem, Indefinite Integrals and the Substitution Method, Area Between Curves.
Chapter 1 Atomic and Molecular Structure (12 Hrs)
Atomic Structure; Distribution of Electrons in Different Energy Levels; Valence Shell and Valence Electrons; Isotopes; Isobars; Nature of Light and Electromagnetic Waves; Wave Nature of Light; Electromagnetic Spectrum; Quantum Nature of Light; Photoelectric Effect; Bohr’s Theory of Atomic Structure; Drawbacks of Bohr Model; Quantum Mechanical Model of the Atom; Dual Nature of Electron (Wave Nature and Particles); Heisenberg’s Uncertainty Principle; Orbitals and Quantum Numbers; Quantum Number; Principle Quantum Number; Azimuthal Quantum Number; Magnetic Quantum Number; Spin Quantum Number; Pauli’s Exclusion Principle; Electronic Configuration of Atoms; Aufbau Principle; Hund’s Rule of Maximum Multiplicity; Writing Lewis Structures; Formal Charge; The Structure of Molecules; Some Terminology; Valence Shell Electron-Pair Repulsion (VSEPR ) Theory; Possibility for Electron Pair Distribution; Applying VSEPR Theory; Structures with Multiple Covalent Bonds; Molecular Shapes and Dipole moments.
Chapter 2 Principle of Chemical Equilibrium (8 Hrs)
Dynamic Equilibrium; The Equilibrium Constant Expression; Relationships involving Equilibrium constants; Relationship of Kc to the Balanced Chemical Equation; Combining Equilibrium Constant Expression; Equilibria involving Gases: The Equilibrium Constant, Kp; Equilibria involving Liquids and Solids; The Reaction Quotient, Q; Predicting the Direction of a Net Reaction; Altering Equilibrium Conditions; Lechatelier’s Principle; Effect of Changes the Amounts of Reacting Species on Equilibrium; Effect of Changes in Pressure or Volume on Equilibrium; Effect of Temperature on Equilibrium; Effect of a Catalyst on Equilibrium; Equilibrium Calculation: Some Ilustrative Examples.
Chapter 3 Chemistry of Engineering Materials (10 Hrs)
Refractories: Characteristics of a good Refractory; Classification of Refractories; Manufacture of Refractories; Properties of Refractories; Important Refractories.
Abrasives: Abrasive Power; Properties of Abrasives; Classification of Abrasives; Uses of Abrasives.
Adhesives: Requirements of a Good Adhesive; Advantages of Adhesive Bonding; Disadvantages of Limitations of Adhesive Bonding; Development of Adhesive Strength; Classification of Adhesives.
Lubricants: Functions of a Lubricant; Classification of Lubricants, Characteristics of Good Lubricants.
Ceramics: Basic Raw Materials for Ceramics; General Properties of Ceramics; Manufacturing Process; Cement; Gypsum.
Composites: Composites Material Structure; Types of Composites, Applications of Composites Materials.
Chapter 4 Metals and Their Applications (10 Hrs)
Metallurgy ( Extracting a Metal from its Ore) - Common Ores, Isolation of Metals from its Ores; Zinc – Production of Zinc from Zinc Blend, Uses (Zn); Iron and Steel – Uses (Iron and Steel); Copper- Isolation and Electro Refining of Copper, Uses (Cu); Aluminium – Production of Aluminium, Properties and Uses of Aluminium; Silver – Properties and Uses of Silver.
Electron Theory, Conductors, Insulators and Semiconductors, Electric Charges, Current, Voltage, Resistance, Simple Electric Circuit, Ohm’s Law, DC Series Circuit and parallel Circuits, Series-Parallel Circuits, Power, Magnetism, Electromagnetism, Problems Solving of Electric Current and Ohm’s Law.
Chapter 1
Complex Numbers: Complex Number &Plane, Polar Form of Complex Numbers powers &Roots.
Linear Algebra I
Chapter 2
Technique of integration: Integration by parts, Trigonometric Integrals, Trigonometric Substitution, Integration of Rational Function by partial function, Improper integrals.
Chapter 3
Conic Section: Equations from the Distance Formula, Circle, Parabola, Ellipes, Hyperbola.
Chapter 4
Probability Theory: Experiment, Outcomes, Events, Probability.
Chapter 5
Permutation, Combination And Mathematical Induction: Permutation, Combination, Mathematical Induction.
AC Generators, Frequency, Voltage and Current, Inductance, Capacitance, Inductive and Capacitive Reactance, Series R-L-C Circuit, Parallel R-L-C Circuits, Power and Power factor in an AC circuit, Transformers, Three-phase Transformers, Problems Solving of DC Network Systems.
No | Code | Course Title | Period Per Week | Credit Point | |||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|
Lect. | Tut. | Pract. | Total | ||||
1 | E 21011 | English | 2 | 1 | 0 | 3 | 2.5 |
2 | EM 21003 | Engineering Mathematics III | 4 | 1 | 0 | 5 | 3.8 |
3 | EP 22011 | Electrical Engineering Circuit Analysis II | 2 | 0 | 1 | 3 | 2.5 |
4 | EP 21014 | Basic Electronics I | 2 | 0 | 1 | 3 | 2.5 |
5 | EP 21021 | Electromechanics I | 2 | 0 | 1 | 3 | 2.5 |
6 | EP 21026 | Generation, Transmission and Distribution | 2 | 1 | 0 | 3 | 2.5 |
7 | ME 21015 | Engineering Mechanics I | 2 | 1 | 0 | 3 | 2.5 |
8 | E 22011 | English | 2 | 1 | 0 | 3 | 2.3 |
9 | EM 22004 | Engineering Mathematics IV | 4 | 1 | 0 | 5 | 3.8 |
10 | EP 22014 | Basic Electronics II | 2 | 0 | 1 | 3 | 2.5 |
11 | EP 22021 | Electromechanics II | 2 | 0 | 1 | 3 | 2.5 |
12 | EP 22026 | Generation, Transmission and Distribution | 2 | 1 | 0 | 3 | 2.5 |
13 | ME 22015 | Engineering Mechanics II | 2 | 1 | 0 | 3 | 2.5 |
Chapter 1
Applications of Definite Integrals, Volume Using Cross- Sections,Volumes Using Cylindrical shells, Arc Length, Areas of Surfaces of Revolution
Chapter 2
Integrals and Transcendental Functions: The logarithm Defined as an Integral, Hyperbolic Functions.
Chapter 3
Parametric Equations and Polar Coordinates: Parameterizations of Curves , Plane Curves, Calculus with Parametric Curves, Polar Coordinates, Area and Length in Polar Coordinates
Chapter 4
Vectors and Geometry of Space: The Dot Products, The Cross Product, Lines in Planes in Space,
Chapter 5
Linear Algebra II: Vectors in Euclidean n Space, Matrices and Simultaneous Linear Equation, Eigenvalues, Eigenvectors.
Characteristics of Sinusoidal, Phasor Representation of sinusoids, Converting between the Time and Frequency , Domains, Impedance and Admittance ,Reactance and Susceptance, Parallel and Series Combinations in the Frequency Domain, Determination of Forced Response Using Phasors, Application of Circuit Analysis Techniques in the frequency domain Instantaneous Power, Average Power, Effective Values of Current and Voltage, Apparent Power and Power Factor, Complex Power Polyphase systems, Single-phase Three-wire systems, Three-phase Y-Y Connection, The Delta ( ∆ ) Connection, Power Measurement in Three phase systems Mutal Inductance, Energy Consideration, The Linear Transformer, The Ideal Transformer, Delta -Wye Conversion One-Port Networks, Admittance Parameters, Some Equivalent Networks, Impedance Parameters, Hybrid Parameters, Transmission Parameters.
Introduction to electronic- Introduction, the Atom, Material used in Electronics, Current in Semiconductors, N-Type and P-Type Semiconductors, the PN Junction, . Diodes and Applications, Diode Operation, Voltage-Current (V-I) Characteristics of a diode, Diode Models, Half-Wave and full-wave Rectifiers, Power Supply Filters and Regulators , Diode Limiters and Clampers, Voltage Multipliers, Special-Purpose Diodes, the Zener Diode, Zener Diode Applications, the Varactor Diode, Optical Diodes, Other Types of Diodes, Bipolar Junction Transistors, Bipolar Junction Transistors (BJT) Structure, Basic BJT Operation, BJT Characteristics and Parameters, the BJT as an Amplifier and a Switch, the Phototransistor, Transistor Categories and Packaging, Transistor Bias Circuits, the DC Operating Point, Voltage-Divider Bias,Other Bias Methods, Field-Effect Transistors (FETs), the JFET, JFET Characteristics and Parameters, JFET Biasing, MOSFET Characteristics and Parameters, MOSFET Biasing, the IGBT
Magnetic Circuits and Magnetic Materials: Introduction to Magnetic Circuits, Flux Linkage, Inductance and Energy, Properties of Magnetic Materials, AC Excitation, Permanent Magnet, Application of Permanent magnet and Materials. Transformers: Introduction to Transformers, No-Load Conditions, Effect of Secondary Current; Ideal Transformer, Transformer Reactances and Equivalent Circuits, Auto Transformers, Engineering Aspects of Transformer Analysis, Transformers in Three-Phase Circuits, Voltage and Current Transformers, The per-Unit System.
Introduction, Importance of Electrical Energy, Generation of Electrical Energy, Sources of Energy, Comparison of Energy sources, Unit of Energy, Relationship among Energy Units, Efficiency, Calorific Value of Fuels, Advantages of Liquid fuels over solid fuels, Generation Stations, Steam power Station (Thermal Station), Schematic Arrangement of Steam power Station, Choice of site for steam power Stations, Efficiency of Steam Power Station, Equipment of Steam power Station, Hydro-electric power Stations, Schematic arrangement of Hydro-electric power station, Choice of site for Hydro-electric power Plants, Diesel power station, Schematic arrangement of diesel power station, Nuclear power station, Schematic arrangement of Nuclear power station, Selection of site for Nuclear power Station, Gas Turbine power plant, Schematic arrangement of Gas Turbine power plant, Comparison of the various power plants.
Chapter 1
Vector Valued Function: Curves in space and their tangents, Integrals of vector Function, Projectile motion, Arc Length in Space, Curvature and Normal Vector, Tangent and Normal Components of Acceleration, Velocity and Acceleration in Polar.
Chapter 2
Partial Differentiation: Limits and Continuity in Higher Dimension: Partial derivatives, Chain rule, Directional derivatives and gradient vector, Tangent planes and differentials, Extreme values and Saddle points
Chapter 3
Multiple Integrals: Double and iterated integrals over rectangular, Double integrals over general regions , Area by double integration, Double integrals in Polar form, Triple integral in rectangular coordinates
Chapter 4
Vector Analysis: Line Integrals, Vector fields work circulation and flux, Path and independence, conservative field, Potential functions, Green’s Theorem, Surface and Area, Surface Integrals
Chapter 5
Infinite Series: Sequence , Infinite Series, The Integral Tests, Comparism Tests, The Ratio And Root Tests, Alternating Series, Absolute and Conditional Convergence , Revision
Digital Concepts: Digital and analog quantities; Binary digits, logic levels, and waveforms; Basic logic operations; Over-view of basic logic functions; Fixed function integrated circuits; Introduction to programmable logic; Test and measurement instruments; Digital system application: Number systems, operations and codes: Decimal numbers; Binary numbers; Decimal-to-binary conversion; Binary arithmetic; 1’s and 2’s complement of binary numbers; Signed numbers; Arithmetic operations with signed numbers; Hexadecimal numbers, Octal numbers; Binary Coded Decimal (BCD); Digital Codes; Error detection and correction codes Logic Gates: The inverter; The AND gate; The OR gate; The NAND gate; The NOR gate; The exclusive OR (XOR) and exclusive NOR (XNOR) gate; Programmable logic: Fixed function logic; Troubleshooting :Boolean Algebra and Logic Simplification: Boolean expressions and operations; Laws and rules of Boolean algebra; Demorgan’s theorem; Boolean analysis of logic circuits; Simplification using Boolean algebra; Standard forms of Boolean expressions; Boolean expressions and truth tables; The Karnaugh map; Karnaug map SOP minimization; Karnaugh map POS minization; Five variable Karnaug map; VHDL: Combinational Logic Analysis: Basic combinational logic circuits; Implementing combinational logic; The universal property of NAND and NOR gate; Combinational logic using NAND and NOR gates; Logic circuit operation with pulse waveform input; Combinational logic with VHDL; Troubleshooting, Digital system application: Functions of Combinational Logic: Basic adders; Parallel binary adders; Ripple carry versus look-ahead carry adders; Comparators; Decoders; Encoders; Code converters; Multiplexers; Demultiplexers;
Electromechanical Energy Conversion Principles: Forces and Torque in Magnetic Field Systems, Energy Balance, Energy in Singly-Excited Magnetic Field System, Determination of Magnetic Force and Torque from Energy, Determination of Magnetic Force and Torque from Coenergy, Dynamic Equations, Analytical Techniques. Introduction to Rotating Machines: Elementary Concepts, Introduction to AC and DC Machines, MMF of Distributed Windings, Magnetic Fields in Rotating Machinery, Generated Voltage, Torque in Nonsalient-Pole Machines, Linear Machines, Magnetic Saturation, Leakage Fluxes.
Mechanical Design of Overhead Lines ,Main components of overhead lines, Conductor materials, Line supports, Insulators, Types of insulators, Potential distribution over suspension insulator string, String efficiency,Methods of improving string efficiency, Important points,Corona,Factors affecting corona,Important terms,Advantages and disadvantages of corona,Methods of reducing corona effect,Sag in overhead lines,Calculation of sag,Some mechanical principles, Electrical Design of Overhead Lines, Constants of transmission lines,Resistance of a transmission lines,Skin effect,Flux linkages,Inductance of a single phase two wire line,Inductance of a 3-phase overhead line,Concept of self-GMD and mutual-GMD,Inductance formulas in terms of GMD, Electric potential, Capacitance of a single phase two wire line,Capacitance of a 3-phase overhead line, Performance of Transmission Lines, Classification of overhead transmission lines,Performance of single phase short transmission lines, Three-phase short transmission lines, Effect of load p.f on regulation and efficiency, Medium transmission lines, End condenser method, Nominal T and π method, Long transmission lines, Analysis of long transmission line(Rigorous method), Generalized circuit constants of a transmission lines, Determination of generalized constants for transmission lines.
No | Code | Course Title | Period Per Week | Credit Point | |||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|
Lect. | Tut. | Pract. | Total | ||||
1 | E 31011 | English | 2 | 1 | 0 | 3 | 2.5 |
2 | EM 31005 | Engineering Mathematics V | 4 | 1 | 0 | 5 | 3.8 |
3 | ME 31034 | Mechanical Engineering Fundamentals I | 2 | 1 | 0 | 3 | 2.5 |
4 | EP 31011 | Electrical Engineering Circuit Analysis III | 2 | 0 | 1 | 3 | 2.5 |
5 | EP 31014 | Power Electronics I | 2 | 0 | 1 | 3 | 2.5 |
6 | EP 31021 | Electrical Machine and Operation I | 2 | 0 | 1 | 3 | 2.5 |
7 | EP 31033 | Electromagnetics Field I | 2 | 1 | 0 | 3 | 2.5 |
8 | EP 31025 | Electrical Measurement Instrumentation | 2 | 0 | 1 | 3 | 2.5 |
9 | E 32011 | English | 2 | 1 | 0 | 3 | 2.5 |
10 | EM 32015 | Engineering Mathematics VI | 4 | 1 | 0 | 5 | 3.8 |
11 | ME 32034 | Mechanical Engineering Fundamental | 2 | 1 | 0 | 3 | 2.5 |
12 | EP 32011 | Electrical Engineering Circuit Analysis IV | 2 | 0 | 1 | 3 | 2.5 |
13 | EP 32014 | Power Electronics II | 2 | 0 | 1 | 3 | 2.5 |
14 | EP 32021 | Electrical Machine and Operation II | 2 | 0 | 1 | 3 | 2.5 |
15 | EP 32033 | Electromagnetics Field II | 2 | 1 | 0 | 3 | 2.5 |
16 | EP 32034 | Electrical Design, Estimating and Costing | 2 | 0 | 1 | 3 | 2.5 |
Chapter 1
First order ODEs: Separable ODEs. Integrating Factors, Linear OGDs. Bernoulli Equation.
Chapter 2
Second –order Linear ODEs: Wronskian, Non-Homogeneous ODEs, Solution by Variation of Parameters
Chapter 3
Higher order linear ODEs: Homogeneous linear ODEs, Homogeneous linear ODEs with constant coefficients, Non-homogeneous linear ODEs
Chapter 4
Laplace Transforms: Laplace Transforms, Inverse Transform. Linearity. s-Shifting, Transforms of Derivatives & Integrals ODEs, Unit Step Function. t- Shifting
Chapter 5
Fourier Series: Fourier Series, Functions of Any Period p=2L, Even & Odd Functions. Half- Range Expansions, Complex Fourier Series, Revision
Basic RL and RC Circuits: The Source-free RL Circuit, Properties of the Exponential Response, The Source-Free RC Circuit, A More General Perspective, The Unit-Step Function, Driven RL Circuits, Predicting the Response of Sequentially Switched Circuits. The RLC Circuit: The source-Free Parallel Circuit, The Over-damped Parallel RLC Circuit, Critical Damping, The Under-damped Parallel RLC Circuit, The Source free Series RLC Circuit, The Complete Response of the RLC Circuit, The Lossless LC Circuit. Complex Frequency and the Laplace Transform: Complex Frequency, The Damped Sinusoidal Forcing Function, Definition of the Laplace Transform, Laplace Transforms of Simple Time Functions, Inverse Transform Techniques, and Basic Theorems for the Laplace Transform, The Initial-Value and Final-Value Theorems.
The Power electronic System: Introduction, switching characteristics, power switches, choice of power switch, Power conditioner, analysis of power converter operation, application of power electronics. DC to DC Choppers: Step-down choppers, choppers with resistive loads, Choppers with inductive loads, DC series motor, Series motor chopper drive, Step-up Choppers, Turning on power Switches, Turning off thyristor circuits, Self-assessment test, problems. AC to DC thyristor converters: Introduction, Single-phase half-wave controlled rectifier, Thyristor turn-on, Single-phase full-wave controlled rectifier, One to Four-quadrant operation, Full Wave half-controlled bridge with resistive load, Half-controlled bridge with fly-wheel diode and highly inductive load, single-phase AC to DC variable speed drives, the SEDC Motor, fully controlled bridge with SEDC motor, Half Controlled bridge with SEDC Motor, Three-phase Converters. DC to AC inverters: Half-bridge with resistive load, Half-bridge inverter with resistive load and capacitive elements, Half-bridge with purely inductive load, Half-bride with an R-L Load.
Direct Current Generator Characteristics, Characteristics of DC Generators, Separately Excited Generator, No Load Saturation Characteristic Direct Current Motor, General aspects, Principle of operation of DC motor, Back or counter E.M.F, Comparison between motor and generator action, Torque developed in motor, Mechanical power developed by motor armature, Types of DC motor, Speed of a DC motor, Speed regulation, Armature reaction and commutation,
Vectors and Vectors: Scalar and Vectors, Vector Algebra, The rectangular Coordinate System, Vector Components and Unit Vectors, The Vector Field, The Dot Product, The Cross product, other coordinate systems, the spherical coordinate system. Coulomb’s Law and Electric Field Intensity: The Experimental Law of Coulomb, electric field intensity, field arising from a continuous volume charge distribution, field of a Line charge, field of a sheet of charge, streamlines and sketches of fields. Electric Flux Density, Gauss’s Law and Divergence: Electric flux density, Gauss’s Law, Application of Gauss’s Law, Application of Gauss’s law, Divergence and Maxwell’s first Equation, the Vector operator and the divergence. Energy and Potential: Energy Expended in Moving a point charge in an electric field, the line integral, definition of potential difference and potential , the potential field of a point charge, the potential field of a system of charges conservative property, potential gradient, the electric dipole.
Electrical Instruments and measurements: Absolute and secondary instruments, Electrical principle of operation, Essential of indicating instruments, deflecting torque, Controlling Torque, Damping Torque, Moving iron Ammeters and voltmeters, Moving coil instrument, Thermocouple Ammeter. AC Bridges: AC Bridges, Maxwell’s Inductance Bridge, Anderson Bridge, Hay’s Bridge, Capacitance Bridge, De Sauty Bridge, Schering Bridge, Wien Parallel Bridge.
Chapter 1
Complex Analytic Function: Derivative Analytic Functions, Cauchy- Riemann Equations, Laplace Equations, Exponential Equations, Trigonometric and Hyperbolic Functions, Logarithm
Chapter 2
Complex Integration: Linear Integral In the Complex Planes, Cauchy’s Integral Theorem , Cauchy’s Integral Formula, Derivatives of Analytic Functions
Chapter 3
Power Series: Taylor Series: Laurent Series,Convergent Test, Power Series, Taylor and Maclaurin Series
Chapter 4
Integration by the Method of Residues : Laurent Series, Singularity Zeros, Infinity, Residues Integration methods
Chapter 5
Conformal: Geometry of Analytics Function: Linear Fractional Transformations, Special Linear transformations
Circuit Analysis in the s-Domain: Z(s) and Y(s), Nodal and Mesh Analysis in the s-Domain, Additional Circuit Analysis Techniques, Poles, Zeros, and Transfer Function, Convolution, The Complex-frequency Plane, Natural Response and the s-Plane. Frequency Response: Parallel Resonance, Bandwidth and High-Q Circuit, Series Resonance, Other Resonant Forms, Scaling, Bode Diagrams, Basic Filter Design, Advanced Filter Design. Fourier Circuit Analysis: Trigonometric Form of the Fourier Series, The use of Symmetry, Complete Response to Periodic Forcing Function, Complex Form of the Fourier Series, Definition of the Fourier Transform, Some Properties of the Fourier Transform, Fourier Transform Pairs for some Simple Time Functions, The Fourier Transform of a General Periodic Time Function, The System Function and Response in the frequency Domain, The Physical Significance of the System Function.
Induction (asynchronous) Machines: Constructional features, rotating magnetic field, induce voltage, polyphase induction machine, three modes of operation, inverted induction machine, equivalent circuit model, No-load test, blocked-rotor test, and equivalent circuit parameter, performance characteristics, power flow in three modes of operation, effects of rotor resistance, Classes of squirrel-cage motors, speed control, Starting of Induction Motors, Time and Space Harmonics ,Linear Induction Motor. Synchronous Machines: Construction of three-phase synchronous machines, synchronous generator, synchronous motors, equivalent circuit model, power and torque characteristics, capability curves, power factor control. Independent generator, salient pole synchronous machines, speed control of synchronous motors, application, Linear synchronous motor (LSM), Brushless DC Motors, switched reluctance motors. Single phase motors: Single phase induction motors, starting winding design, equivalent circuit of a capacitor run motor, single phase series (Universal) motors,single phase synchronous motors, speed control.
Conductors and Dielectrics: current and current density, continuity of current, Metallic conductors, conductor properties and boundary condition, the method of Images, semiconductors, the Nature of Dielectric Materials. Capacitance: Capacitance defined, parallel-plate capacitor, several capacitance examples, capacitance of a two-wire line, using field sketches to estimate capacitance in two-dimensional problems, poisson’s and Laplace’s equation. The Steady Magnetic Field: Biot-savart Law, Ampere’s Circuital Law, Curl, Stoke’s Theorem, Magnetic flux and Magnetic flux density, the scalar and vector magnetic potential. Magnetic Forces, Materals and Inductance: Force on a Moving Charge, Force on a Differential current Element, Force between Differential Current Elements, Force and Torque on a Closed circuit, The Nature of Magnetic Materials, Magnetization and permeability, Magnetic boundary condition, the magnetic circuit. Time-Varying Fields and Maxwell’s Equation: Faraday’s Law, Displacement current. Maxwell’s Equations in Point form, Maxwell’s Equation in Integral Form, the retarded potentials. Transmission Lines: Physical description of transmission line propagation, the transmission line equation, lossless propagation, lossless propagation of sinusoidal voltage, complex analysis of sinusoidal waves.
GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF ESTIMATION: Introduction to estimation & costing, Electrical Schedule, Catalogues, Market Survey and source selection, Recording of estimates, Determination of required quantity of material, Labor conditions, Determination of cost material and labour, Contingencies, Overhead charges, Profit, Purchase system, Purchase enquiry and selection of appropriate purchase mode, Comparative statement, Purchase orders, Payment of bills, Tender form, General idea about IE rule, Myanmar Electricity Act and major applicable I.E rules. RESIDENTIAL BUILDING ELECTRIFICATION: General rules guidelines for wiring of residential installation and positioning of equipments, Principles of circuit design in lighting and power circuits, Procedures for designing the circuits and deciding the number of circuits, Method of drawing single line diagram, Selection of type of wiring and rating of wires and cables, Load calculations and selection of size of conductor, Selection of rating of main switch, distribution board, protective switchgear ELCB and MCB and wiring accessories, Earthing of residential Installation, Sequence to be followed for preparing estimate, Preparation of detailed estimates and costing of residential installation. ELECTRIFICATION OF COMMERCIAL INSTALLATION: Concept of commercial installation, Differentiate between electrification of residential and commercial installation, Fundamental considerations for planning of an electrical installation system for commercial building, Design considerations of electrical installation system for commercial building, Load calculation and selection of size of service connection and nature of supply, Deciding the size of the cables, busbar and bus bar chambers, Mounting arrangements and positioning of switchboards, distribution boards main switch etc.
No | Code | Course Title | Period Per Week | Credit Point | |||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|
Lect. | Tut. | Pract. | Total | ||||
1 | E 41011 | English | 2 | 1 | 0 | 3 | 2.3 |
2 | EM 41007 | Engineering Mathematics VII | 4 | 1 | 0 | 5 | 3.8 |
3 | EP 41027 | Linear Control System I | 2 | 1 | 0 | 3 | 2.5 |
4 | EP 41028 | Programmable Logic Control I | 2 | 0 | 1 | 3 | 2.5 |
5 | EP 41021 | Electrical Machine Design I | 2 | 1 | 0 | 3 | 2.5 |
6 | EP 41036 | Design & Layout of Power System I | 2 | 1 | 0 | 3 | 2.5 |
7 | EP 41042 | Power System Analysis I | 2 | 1 | 0 | 3 | 2.5 |
8 | EcE-41004 | Microprocessor System | 2 | 0 | 1 | 3 | 2.5 |
9 | E 42011 | English | 2 | 1 | 0 | 3 | 2.3 |
10 | EM 42008 | Engineering Mathematics VIII | 4 | 1 | 0 | 5 | 3.8 |
11 | EP 42027 | Linear Control System II | 2 | 1 | 0 | 3 | 2.5 |
12 | EP 42028 | Programmable Logic Control II | 2 | 0 | 1 | 3 | 2.5 |
13 | EP 42021 | Electrical Machine Design II | 2 | 1 | 0 | 3 | 2.5 |
14 | EP 42036 | Design & Layout of Power System II | 2 | 1 | 0 | 3 | 2.5 |
15 | EP 42042 | Power System Analysis II | 2 | 1 | 0 | 3 | 2.5 |
16 | EC 42004 | Microprocessor System | 2 | 0 | 1 | 3 | 2.5 |
Chapter 1
Numeric In General: Solution of Equations By Iteration, Interpolation, Numbers of Integration and Differentiation
Chapter 2
Numeric Linear Algebra: Linear System LU, Solution by Iteration, Least Square Methods. Inclusion of Matrices, Power Methods of Eigen Values, Tridiagonalization and QR Factorization
Chapter 4
Numeric for ODEs and PDEs: Methods for First Order, Multistep Methods, Methods for Higher Order
Chapter 5
Unconstrained optimization linear Programming : Basic Concepts, linear Programming , Simplex Methods
Control Systems, Digital Control Development, The Engineering Control Problem, Electric Circuits and Components, State Concepts, Transfer Function and Block Diagram, Mechanical Translation Systems, Analogous Circuits, Mechanical Rotational Systems, Effective Moment of Inertia and Damping of a Gear Train, Thermal Systems, Hydraulic Linear Actuator , Standard Inputs to Control Systems, Steady-State Response, Classical Method, Second-Order Transients , Time-Response Specifications, State-Variable Equations
Programmable Logic Controller; Controller, Hardware, Internal Architecture, PLC System Input-Output Devices; Input Devices, Output Devices Number Systems; the Binary System, Octal and Hexadecimal, Binary Arithmetic, PLC DataI/O Processing; Input /Output Units, Signal Conditioning, Remote Connections, Network Processing Inputs, I/O Addresses Ladder and Functional Block Programming; Ladder Diagrms, Logic Functions, Latching, Multiple Outputs, Entering Programs, Function Blocks IL, SFC and ST Programming Methods; Instruction Lists, Sequential Function Charts, Structured Text
Basic Consideration in Design: Specifications, Output Coefficients, Importance of Specific Loadings, Effects of Material on Design, General Design Procedure Electrical Materials: Conducting Materials, Insulating Materials, Properties of Insulating Materials, Solid Insulating Materials, Insulation for Conductor Covering, Insulating Varnish, Causes of Failure of Insulation, Magnetic MaterialsMagnetic Circuit Calculation: Magnetic Circuits of Electrical Machines, Laws of Magnetic Circuits, Ampere turns for a magnetic circuit, Calculation of magnetic circuit of DC machine, Calculation of magnetic circuit of Induction motor, Calculation of magnetic circuit of Alternator Heating and Cooling: Temperature rise in electrical machines, Standard rating of electrical machines, Modes of heat dissipation, Ventilation of static machines (Transformers), Ventilation of rotating electrical machines, Quantity of cooling medium, Types of enclosure Design of Transformers: Types of transformers, Construction, Introduction to design, Main dimensions of magnetic circuits, Transformer windings, Mechanical forces in transformers, Tap changing
Voltage Control and Distribution System, Introduction, Power System Load, Planning Principles and Planning Criteria, Economic Consideration and Loss Evaluation, Topologies of Electrical Power Systems, Arrangement in Grid stations and Substations
The Admittance Model and Network Calculations, branch and node admittances, an equivalent admittance network, node elimination (Kron Reduction), triangular factorization, The Impedance Model and Network Calculations, The bus admittance and impedance matrices, Thevenin’s theorem and Zbus, Calculation of Zbuselements fromYbus, Power invariant transformations, Power- Flow Solutions, The power flow problem, The Gauss-seidel method, The Newton –Raphson method, The Newton –Raphson power –flow solution, The Decouple power-flow method
Chapter 1
Probability, Statistics + Queueing Theory: Random variable. Probability Distribution, Mean and Variance of a Distribution, Binomial, Poisson and Hypergeometric Distribution, Normal Distribution, Distribution of Several Random Variables, Queueing Theory
Chapter 2
Mathematical Statistics: Confidence intervals
Chapter 3
Graphs: Combinatorial Optimization: Graphs and Digraphs, Shortest Path Problems, Bellman’s Principle, Shortest spanning Trees, Flow in Networks, Maximum flow, Bipartite Graphs, Revision
Laplace Transform Theorems, Application of the Laplace Transform to Differential Equations, Inverse Transformation, Frequency Response from the Pole-Zero Diagram, Location of Poles and Stability, Laplace Transform of the Impulse Function, Solution of State Equation, Evaluation of the Transfer-Function Matrix, Block Diagrams, Standard Block Diagram Terminology , Position Control System, Simulation Diagrams, Signal Flow Graphs, State Transition Signal Flow Graph, Feedback System Types, Analysis of System Types, Steady-State Error Coefficients, Use of Steady-State Error Coefficients, Non unity-Feedback System
Internal Relays; Internal Relays, Ladder Programs, Battery-Backed Relays, One-Shot Operation, Set and Reset, Master Control Relays Jump and Call; Jump, Subroutines Timers; Types of Timers, Programming, Up and Down Counting, Timers with Counters, Sequencer Shift Registers; Shift Registers, Ladder Programs, Data Handing; Registers and Bits, Data Handing, Arithmetic Functions, Closed Loop Control Designing Systems; Program Development, Safe Systems, Commissioning, Fault Finding, System Documentation Programs; Temperature Control, Valve Sequencing, Conveyor Belt Control, Control of a Process
Three Phase Induction Motor Output – equation Calculation main dimension Stator winding design Stator slot design Stator teeth design Depth of stator core Air gap length Rotor design Number of slots Check for rotor tooth density Estimation of operating characteristics Dispersion-Coefficient Single Phase Induction Motors Single phase induction Types of motors Starting characteristics Constructional features Specifications Output equation Choice of specific loadings Main dimensions Stator design Rotor design Operating characteristics Performance calculations Design of auxiliary winding Synchronous machines Types of synchronous machines Synchronous motors Output equation Main dimensions SCR and its effect on machine performance Pole face profile Armature design Harmonic in voltage wave form Armature resistance Armature leakage reactance Design of salient pole rotor Estimation of losses and efficiency Design of turbo-generator D.C. Machine Stator Rotor Brush gear Output Equation Estimation of Pa Choice of specific magnetic loading Bav Choice of specific electric loading(ac) Variations in output coefficient with dimensions Calculation of D2LChoice of number of polesGuide lines for selecting number of poles Choice of armature core length Choice of armature diameter Provision of ventilating ducts Length of air gap Design of armature winding Number of armature slots Dimension of armature conductor Calculation for flux density at the tooth Design of the field system Ampere turns of the magnetic circuit Design of commutator Temperature rise of commutator Design of interpoles Losses and efficiency
Substations , Introduction, Distribution system design, Voltage Control, Substation Layout Showing Substation Equipment, Busbar Single Busbar And Sectionalised Busbar, Main And Transformer For Busbar System, Sectionalised Double Busbar System, Ring Main System, Methods of System, Size of Earth Wire Transformers, General, Utilization and Construction of Transformers, Operation of Transformers, Thermal Permissible Loading, Economical Operation of Transformers, Short Circuit Strength Cable Systems ,General, Construction Details, Electrical Parameters of Cable, Losses and Permissible Current, Planning and Design of Cable Routes and Trenches, Short Circuit Withstand Capability Overhead Line, General, Permissible Loading(Thermal) Current, Electric Field Strength, Sag Tensions and Minimum Distances, Short Circuit Thermal Withstand Strength, Right of way(ROW) and Tower Arrangement, Cost Estimates, High Temperature Conductors Flexible AC Transmission System (FACTS), Basics of Transmission of Power through Lines, Parallel Compensation of Lin, Series Compensation of lines, Phase Shifting Equipment, Improvement of Stability, Basics of Flexible AC Transmission Systems (FACTS), HVDC Transmission (Hight Voltage Direct Current load flow and short circuit current calculation, Load Flow Calculation, Calculation of Short Circuit currents, Short Circuit Withstand Capability, Limitation of Short Circuit currents
Symmetrical Fault Analysis, short circuit of a synchronous machine(on no load) , short circuit of a loaded synchronous machine, Zbus building algorithm, Symmetrical Components and Sequence Network, synthesis of unsymmetrical phasors from their symmetrical components, symmetrical Y and ∆ circuits, power in terms of symmetrical components, sequence circuits of a symmetrical transmission line, sequence circuits of Y - ∆ transformers, Unsymmetrical Fault Analysis, symmetrical component analysis of unsymmetrical faults, single line to ground (LG) faults, line to line (LL) faults, double line to ground (LLG) faults, open conductor faults State Estimation of Power Systems-the method of least squares, statistics, errors, and estimates, test for bad data, power system state estimation, the structure a n d formation of hx, summary
No | Code | Course Title | Period Per Week | Credit Point | |||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|
Lect. | Tut. | Pract. | Total | ||||
1 | EP 51002 | Economics Operation of Power System | 2 | 1 | 0 | 3 | 2.5 |
2 | EP 51043 | Electromechanical Energy Conversion | 2 | 1 | 0 | 3 | 2.5 |
3 | EP 51022 | Power System Protection | 2 | 1 | 0 | 3 | 2.5 |
4 | IT 41017 | Modern Control Systems | 2 | 0 | 2 | 4 | 3 |
5 | EP 51014 | Electrical Machines and Control | 2 | 0 | 1 | 3 | 2.5 |
6 | EP 52002 | Power System Stability | 2 | 1 | 0 | 3 | 2.5 |
7 | EP 52043 | Electromechanical Energy Conversion | 2 | 0 | 1 | 3 | 2.5 |
8 | EP 52022 | Power System Protection | 2 | 1 | 0 | 3 | 2.5 |
9 | EP 52017 | Modern Control System | 2 | 1 | 0 | 3 | 2.5 |
10 | EP 52014 | Electrical Machines and Control | 2 | 1 | 0 | 3 | 2.5 |
The Components of a Power System, planning and operation problems, artificial Intelligence and neutral networks, fuzzy theory in power systems, Economic load Dispatch of thermal generation units, generator operation cost, economic dispatch problem on a bus-bar , optimal generation scheduling, economic dispatch using Newton-Raphson Method, Approximate Newton-Raphson Method, Efficient Method, loss coefficient calculation using YBus , loss coefficient using sensitivity factors , transmission loss coefficient, economic dispatch for active and reactive power balance, evaluation of incremental transmission loss, optimal power flow based on Newton Method, optimal power flow based on Gradient Method, Optimal Hydrothermal Scheduling, Classification of Hydro Plants, long range and short range problem, Hydro plant performance models, short range fixed-head hydrothermal scheduling, Newton-Raphson Method for short range fixed-head hydrothermal scheduling, Approximate Newton-Raphson Method for short range fixed-head hydrothermal scheduling, short range variable-head hydrothermal scheduling- classical method , Approximate Newton-Raphson Method for short range variable-head hydrothermal scheduling.
Block diagram of Electromechanical Energy Conversion devices, left hand and right hand rule, energy flow, losses in ferromagnetic cores, inductor, doubly-excited rotary device, basic coordinates and parameters of systems, energy and co energy, force and torque balance equations, Transformers, single-phase transformer, three-phase transformer, auto transformer, scott transformer, Switched-reluctance machines, construction, aligned and unaligned positions, electromagnetic torque, power electronics converters for SRMs, advantages and disadvantages, steady state performance characteristics, design recommendation, DC Machines, principle of operation, construction of DC brush machine, armature winding, fundamental equations, armature reaction, DC generation, DC motors, compound-wound motor, braking, permanent magnet DC commutator motors
Protective relaying, power system structural considerations, elements of a protection system relay operation principles, detection of faults, relay designs, electromechanical relays, solid state relays, control circuit , current and voltage transformers, steady state performance of current transformers, transient performance of current transformers, voltage transformers, nonpilot overcurrent protection of transmission lines, fuses, sectionalizers and recloser, instantaneous overcurrent relays, polarizing, nonpilot distance protection of transmission lines, three-phase distance relays, polyphase relays, loadability relays, pilot protection of transmission lines, communication channels, tripping versus blocking, directional comparison blocking and unblocking, underreaching transfer trip,current differential, multiterminal line, the smart grid.
Introduction , power devices and switching, motor drive, scope of the book, Modeling of DC Machines, theory of operation, induced emf, equivalent circuit and electromagnetic torque, state-space modeling, block diagram and transfer functions, field excitation, measurement of motor constants, flow chart for computation, Phase-controlled DC motor drives, principles of DC motor speed control, phase-controlled converts, steady-state analysis of the three-phase converter-controlled DC motor drive, transfer function of the subsystems, design controllers, simulation of the one quadrant DC motor drive, harmonics and associated problems, sixth-harmonic torque, Chopper-controlled DC motor Drive, principle of the operation of the chopper, four quadrant chopper circuit, chopper for inversion, model of the chopper, input to the chopper,steady-state analysis of chopper-controlled DC motor Drive, closed-loop operation, dynamic simulation of the speed controlled DC motor drive
Power System Stability, requirements of reliable electrical power service, effect of an impact upon system components, the elementary mathematical model, swing equation, mechanical torque, electrical torque, equal area criterion, classical model of a multimachine system, shortcomings of the classical model, System response to small disturbances, the unregulated synchronous machine, distribution of power impacts.
Windings of AC machines , winding diagram, distribution factor and pitch factor, magnetic field produced by a single coil, magnetic field of a phase winding, magnetic field of a three phase winding, MMF of two-phase winding, MMF of single-phase winding, Induction Machines, Fundamental relationships, equivalent circuit, no-load and locked-rotor tests, torque-speed characteristics, starting, induction motors that use skin effect in the rotor winding, speed control, braking, abnormal operating condition, single-phase induction motor. Synchronous Machines, classification of synchronous machines, armature reaction, generator and motor operation, losses and efficiency, operation of synchronous generators, synchronous motor, synchronous reluctance motors.
Rotating Machinery Protection, stator faults, rotor fault, unbalanced currents, overload, overspeed, loss of excitation, loss of synchronism, winding connection, startup and motoring, sequential tripping, Transformer Protection, overcurrent protection, percentage differential protection, supervised differential relays, three-phase transformer protection, Volts-per-Hertz protection, nonelectrical protection, protection systems for transformer, Bus, Reactor, and Capacitor Protection, Overcurrent Relays, Percentage Differential Relays, High-Impedance Voltage Relays, Moderately High-Impedance Relay, linear couplers, Partial differential protection, dry-type reactors, oil-immersed reactors, introduction to shunt capacitor bank protection, static var compensator protection, static compensator.
Reduction of Multiple Subsystems, analysis and design of feedback systems, single-flow graphs, Mason’s rule, alternative representations in state space, similarity transformations, Stability, Routh-Hurwitz criterion, special cases, additional examples, stability in state space, Steady-State Errors, steady-state error for unity feedback system, steady-state error for specifications, steady-state error for disturbances, steady-state error for non unity feedback system, sensitivity, steady-state error for systems in state space. Root Locus Techniques, defining the Root Locus, properties of the Root Locus, sketching the Root Locus, refining the sketch, transient response design via gain adjustment, generalized Root Locus, pole sensitivity.
Poly phase Induction Machines, construction and principle of operation, induction motor equivalent circuit, steady-state performance equations of the induction motor, steady-state performance, measurement of motor parameters, dynamic modeling of induction machines, dynamic simulation, small-signal equations of the induction machine, evaluation of control characteristics of the induction machine, space-phasor model, control principle of the induction motor, Phase-Controlled Induction Motor Drives, stator-voltage control, slip-energy recovery scheme, Frequency-Controlled Induction Motor Drives, static frequency changers, voltage-source inverter-driven induction motor, current-source induction motor drives.
No | Code | Course Title | Period Per Week | Credit Point | |||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|
Lect. | Tut. | Pract. | Total | ||||
1 | HSS 61011 | Humanities and Social Science | 4 | 0 | 0 | 4 | 4 |
2 | EP 61033 | Computer Aided Electrical Engineering | 1 | 0 | 1 | 2 | 1.5 |
3 | EP 61012 | Electrical Safety and Ethics | 1 | 0 | 0 | 1 | 1 |
4 | EP 61012 | Power System Realibility | 1 | 0 | 0 | 1 | 1 |
5 | EP 62005 | Industrial Training | 0 | ||||
6 | EP 62015 | Humanities and Social | 0 |
Power Flow Analysis: Introduction, Bus Admittance Matrix, Solution of Nonlinear, Power flow solution, Gauss-Seidel power flow solution, line flow and losses, tap changing transformers, power flow programs, Data Preparation, Newton-Raphson power flow solution. Fast decoupled power flow solution. Optimal Dispatch of Generation: Introduction, Nonlinear function optimization, Operation cost of a thermal plant, Economic dispatch neglecting losses and no generator limits, economic dispatch neglecting losses and including generator limits, Economic dispatching including losses, derivation of loss formula. Balanced Fault: Introduction, balanced three-phase fault, Short-circuit capacity (SCC), Systematic fault analysis using bus impedance matrix, algorithm for formation of the bus impedance matrix, ZBUILd and SYSFAULT programs. Symmetrical Components and Unbalanced fault: Introduction, fundamentals of symmetrical components, sequence impedances, Sequence networks of a loaded generator, single line-to-ground fault , line-to-line fault, Double Line-to-Ground fault, Unbalanced fault Analysis, Unbalanced fault Programs. Stability: Introduction, Swing equation, Synchronous machine models for stability studies, Steady-state stability small disturbances, Transient Stability, application of three-phase fault, Numerical solution of Nonlinear Equation, Numerical Solution of the swing equation, Multimachine systems, Multimachine transient stability.
Basic Definitions and Nomenclature: Introduction, Basic Definitions and Nomenclature. Fundamentals of Electrical Safety: Introduction, Protection Against Direct Contact, Protection Against Indirect Contact. Mathematical Principles of Electrical Safety: Introduction, Mathematical Definition of Safety, Risk of Indirect and Direct Contact, The Acceptable Residual Risk, Safety and Risk of Basic Insulation, Safety and Risk of Class 0 Equipment, Safety and Risk of Class I Equipment, Safety and Risk of Class II Equipment, Safety and Risk of Electrical Separation, A Qualitative Comparison Between Safety and Risk of Protective Measures. The Earth: Introduction, the earth Resistance, The Earth Potential, Independent and Interacting Earth Electrodes, Spherical Electrodes, Voltage Exposure Upon Ground Faults, Voltage or Current? Effects of Electric Currents passing Through the Human Body, and Safety Requirements: Introduction, the Human Body as an Electrical system, Influence of Frequency on the effects of Current, Physiological Response to Electrical Current, Permissible Body current and Person's Body Mass, Permissible Body Current Independent of Human Size, Human Body Impedance. Testing the Electrical Safety: Introduction ,Soil Resistivity Measurement, Earth Resistance Measurement, Earth Resistance Measurements in Industrial Facilities, Earth Resistance Measurement in TT Systems, Measurement of the Fault-Loop Impedance in TN Systems, Touch Voltage Measurement in TN Systems (Low-Voltage Earth Faults), Step and Touch Voltage Measurements in TN Systems, Fundamental Measurements in IT Systems, Protective Conductor Continuity Test ,Insulation Resistance Test.
Introduction: What is power system reliability? Why is it necessary to study? Evaluation Techniques, How can we apply it? Functional Zones and Hierarchical Levels, Basic Consideration, Reliability Cost and Reliability Worth, Concepts of Data. Analysis of Distribution system reliability: Evaluation Techniques, Application of Radial System. Reliability Improvement by Protection System: Effect of Lateral Protection and Disconnecting Switches, Effect of Protection Failure. Reliability Improvement by Distributed Generation: Reliability Analysis with Dispersed Generation, Embedded generation cannot be run independently of the BSP, Embedded generation can be run independently of the BSP.